This is a complete TOEFL integrated writing practice question (with a lecture and reading). April 2019.
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This is a complete TOEFL integrated writing practice question (with a lecture and reading). April 2019.
TOEFL,TOEFL Writing,essay,integrated writing,practice
Al Escoto says
Thanks for making this video aviable it is really helpful :D. Here is my essay
The lecturer refutes the ideas stated in the reading about the possible reasons to why the civilization located in the Easter Island collapsed.
First of all, the reading arguments that the population decline of this civilization could have been that an infestation caused by large rats lead to erosion and infertility of the ground however the lecturer mentions that remains of the civilization show that it is likely that around 60% of their diet came from sea food and even if the rat infestation caused erosion, they were able to make rock gardens with rich soil and grow crops such as potatoes and therefore were able to have enough food.
Secondly, the reading states that another possible reason is a large-scale warfare due to archeological excavations where small curved blades were found and are thought to be weapons however the lecturer mentions that these blades may not even be weapons but tools used to making constructions and statues given their small size.
And finally the last paragraph suggests that the decline of the Easter Island civilization´s population decline might have been originated by exposure to diseases brought by a large scale contact with outsiders in the 19th century just as it was with native north American populations a few hundred years earlier but the lecturer goes against this by stating that in the 17th century the population was calculated to be around 20 thousand people and around the 19th century it was only about 3 thousand, therefore the population decline began much earlier and it was not caused by foreign contact.
Mohammed Atrushi says
The reading and the lecture are both about the collapse of the Easter island civilization, the author of the writing feels that, for main three reasons, the civilization collapsed, the lectures challenges the claims of the writer, he is of point that these points made by the author lacks evidence.
To begin with, the author of the reading suggests that the Easter island collapsed due to a infestation of rats which resulted in deforestation and inability of the local to grow food, its mentioned In the article that these rats were brought by boats, this specific argument is challenged by the lecturer, he thinks that the population were not dependent on croup growing, but that majority of the inhabitants were fishers, and the food was coming from the sea, he additionally notes that the island had a special rocks used as a soil to grow potatoes.
Secondly, the writer of the reading argues that civil war was a cause of the collapse, its stated in the reading that archaeologist have found a kind of weapon called Matta, that was probably used in these situation, the lecturer, however, rebuts these claims, He says that according to a recent search, it was found that these blades were not suitable for killing, he elaborate by bringing up the point that the surface of these weapons were not sharp enough, the Matta were probably used as a construction tool and to cut rocks
Finally, the author of the reading posits those diseases brought by visitors is a reason for the collapse, he mentions in the reading that the locals had no resistance to infectious diseases, in contrast, the lecturer is of the point that the population number decreased long enough prior to the arriving of foreign visitors.
Sofia Butkovskaya says
Hello, could you please read my essay.
im taking TOEFL in a week)
The reading and the lecture are both about the civilisations demise on Easter Island. Whereas the author of the reading states that Easter Island has suffered a collapse, the lecturer suggests that it could not have possibly happened. The lecturer casts doubt on the main points made in the reading by providing three reasons.
First of all, according to the reading Ester Island suffered a collapse due to large rats, that were brought on boats. They soon started to reproduce and consume seeds and plants which led to deforestation and starvation to the people of Easter Island. However the lecturer disputes this point. He states that rats might have been on the island and that they could have consumed plants and seeds, but this did not lead to starvation. Furthermore, he mentions that the population would still have food due to the rich soils and corps that they planted, grew a lot of potatoes.
Secondly, the reading states that the civilisations decline might have been because of war that has occurred. Some excavations found blades, which were used as weapons during warfare. Due to this the population was declined. Nevertheless, the lecturer refutes this argument. He argues that warfare destroyed society. In addition, he points out that mata’a wasn’t a weapon. It was used to cut rocks and used for building homes and statues.
Finally, the reading claims that the population in Easter Island has suffered a collapse due to the disease that was brought form different continents and a large amount of people on this island had contact with them. On the other hand, the lecture believes that it could not be possible due to the numbers of the population that got the disease and the opposite. Moreover, he feels that the disease was present on the island long before the outsiders infected them.
In conclusion, although the reading and the lecture are both about Easter Island suffering a demise. The three main points made in the reading are effectively challenged by the lecturer.
clisman gomez lopez says
The reading and the lecture are both about the collapse of Easter island. The author of the reading provides three theories about the possible reasons why this civilization vanished. The lecturer disputes made in the article. His position is that the theories do not give a clear explanation that caused its collapse.
According to the reading, an infestation of large rats might have been the reason that caused the collapse of this civilization, first of all because they fed on the seeds, they grown in the island that caused deforestation and in turn lack of food. This specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that even thought rats would have been in the island, 60 percent of their diet was based on sea food. Additionally, there were also garden with rich soil were, for example, potatoes were grown.
Secondly, the author suggests that another reason for the collapse of this civilization might have been due to an internal warfare, based on the assumption given by the weapons found on the island. The lecturer, however, asserts that, actually, the weapons found were only tools sharp enough only to cultivate food and to build houses.
Finally, the author posits that the exposure to foreign diseases and lack of biological resistance were the main causes of the decline of the population in the island. In contrast, the lecturer’s stance is that when contact with outsiders began there was a small number of inhabitants which compared to the 20 000 estimated population is only a very small fraction.
This is one of my essays. I hope this gives a better idea of the task. by the way, getting ready for the exam.
Hanie Barghi says
Hi Michele, although this practice test was posted about two years ago, I saw it recently. I hope you would check my essay. Thank you.
The article states that before the 19th century, the population on Easter Island, denoted to one of the remote islands in the Pacific Ocean, declined. Moreover, the writer provides three reasons for explaining why this disaster occurred. On the contrary, the lecture believes that although the civilization on Easter Island collapsed, this baffling mystery is not resolved by the passage. He rebuts each of the solutions explained by the article.
To begin with, the author avers that the rats transmitted to the island by the boats moving between the island and outside of it were responsible for civilization's demise. In the article, it is stated that the population suffered from a lack of food, as the rats consumed the seed of palm trees. This specific argument is challenged by the lecture. He posits that the civilization rarely was in danger of famine. The professor elaborates on this by bringing up the point that the excavations indicate the residents on the island were skilled fishers; therefore, most of their diets come from the sea. Additionally, there existed some rock gardens for growing potatoes, these account for the truth that food resources for the population on Easter Island were not limited to palm seeds.
Regarding the second measure, internal warfare, the lecturer points out that the shape and size of mata’a blades discovered from the island were not similar to combatting weapons. He goes on to say that not only were not they very sharp, but also they seemed to be suitable for cutting rocks, building homes, and creating giant statues. The article gives the opposite view: During the 15th century, the long-lasting internal war caused a massive loss of people while the fighters used mata’a as weapons.
Finally, the reading passage feels that the diseases brought by outsiders were the reason for the population’s collapse. Nevertheless, the lecturer opposes this point by mentioning that frequent contact with outsiders may exposure some diseases to the native population on the island, but this is not the reason for civilization’s demise. The professor’s stance is that the number of people on the island before the 19th century, when visitors regularly came to the island, was about three thousand, much less compared to the past centuries. As a result, the human decline had occurred some years before foreign diseases increased on the island.
Oguz Han Sayar says
The professor talks about the theories trying to explain the total collapse of the society on the Easter Island. He in generell provides evidence to the three theories presented in the reading passage.
Firstly, he focuses on the “rat-theory”. He points out that rats indeed are found on the island and as it is stated in the passage, these rats consumed the seeds of the palm trees on the island. However, based on studies, the professor agues that the reduced availability of these seeds did not cause the pupulation demise. In fact, 60 % of the humans diat based on sea food. They were fishers and were not dependend on the vegetables growing out of the consumed seeds. In addition, The people build guardances with stones to prevent soil loss and erosion, which could be caused by too less growing palm trees.
Secondly, the lecturer talks about the internal warfare theory. Although the reading passage mentions the curved blades as an indicator for the occurrence of combat siuations, the professor provides an analysis of these curves contradiciting that theory. The found blades on the island were small and not even sharp, implying that those were used as tools to build houses and the often found statues on the island. As a results, he does not assume an internal warfare to be the reason for the collapse of the civilization.
Lastly, the professor states that the population did not die to a disease. He agrees with the fact that many human visited the Easter Islands in the 19th century. It is assumed that at that time 3000 people were living on the island and actually were suffering from foreign diseases. But in the 17th century there almost lived 20.000 people on the insland, which indicates that the main cause for the decline of the population has to lay more in the past.
Vesa Shabani says
Thank you a lot for the help, I hope that you are able to review my essay.
The topic discussed in both the lecture and reading is the collapse of civilization before the 19th century on the Eastern Island which its demise remains a mystery. Although the reading suggests 3 claims that might have been the cause of this collapse, the professor in the lecture does not think that the points made in the reading give clear answers for this cause.
Firstly, the professor argues that even if there was an infestation of large rats in the island, deforestation caused by the rats eating the palm seeds would not scarce the food for the civilians, since evidence shows that they used other sources for providing food such as by fishing and gardening. Thus this contradicts the claim made in the reading, about rat infestation being the reason for food scarcity in the island.
Secondly, the professor in the lecture argues that the internal warfare is not what declined this population, since the blades that were thought to be used as weapons in the reading, were actually not sharp and were more likely used for construction work and cutting rocks. Therefore the warfare hypothesis stated in the reading no longer gives clear explanations for the collapse.
Last but not least, the professor argues that viruses brought from visitors and foreigners, as it was stated in the reading, were not the sudden cause of the population decline. Although they might have had an impact, the professor in the lecture gives evidence based on research that suggests the population decline had begun before contact with foreigners.
GEORGES Dagher says
Easter island which the name suggest is a remote island located in the pacific ocean, the mysterious thing that arouse around this island is the disappearance of its local population, which remains a mystery to this day.
Historians have made some points suggesting the cause of the disappearance of the entire population starting with the suggestion that a rat infestation brought by the native population might be the cause of deforestation and the famine of the locals, but this suggestions might not be true after all because the locals seems to be fisherman so their diet largely consist of sea foods in which it may not be affected by the deforestation.
Another suggestion is that a civil war broke out whipping the entire population, and the large amount of weapons called mata’a found all across the island indicates that, but that also might not be true since the vast majority of these weapons don’t have pointy edges and might be used in constructions and rock mining and sculptures that are found all across the island
another cause suggest that exposure to external civilisations might have brought diseases that their immune system wasn’t ready for it yet, but that also might not be true after all, because the population size started diminishing well before the interactions happens, and even though they had interactions that also might not whip an entire population out of existence.
At the end, no one knows for sure what might be the cause of such depopulation and it remains a mystery that geologists are still searching for answers till today.
Lala Efendiyeva says
Hello. My name is Sima. I'm from Azerbaijan. I would like to know, if you prepare students for TOEFL.
The article states that the demise of the civilization thrived on Easter Islands remains mysterious. The article also provides 3 possibele causes of this demise. However, the professor opposes the points made in the article and refutes each of them.
First, the article states that rats with high reproduce rates might be the reson behing the deforastration which eventually caused the consumption of food reserves and the demise. The professor opposes this opinion by saying that the main staple of the civilization was obtained by fishing even through it is proven that rats had settled in the island. According to thim there was eprodigious amount of food supply by seas as he indicates that 60 percent of nutritions were acquired from sea. Also, he says that many farmland to crop vegetatives such as patatoes were covered with special rock guards to prevent any intrusion by rats.
Second,the article says that a large scale internal fight might have been the reason for the demise. Contrary to that, the professor says that blades discovered in the island were more suitable for construction in terms of their size and shape rather than combatting. Many of blades found in the island were not even pointy. So, in the professor’s view, the blades used to build homes and large statues, as they mostly used as a tool.
Third, the article posits the exposure to diseases brought by visitors from Europe and South America might have became the another reason for the demise. However, the professor accepts that the diseases resulted from the contact had been proven to be deadly but he refutes this idea by saying that the number of inhabitants which is around 20000 people in the 17th century were larger than the estimated number of effected people by the disease which is 3000. That’s why, he concludes that the real reason for the demise must have been taken place long before any contact with visitors.
The reading and the lecture are both about a collapse of civilization that thrived on the eastern island in the 19th century. The author of the reading claims that there are three possible explanations for this decline. The lecturer casts doubt on this claim. He believes that none of the ideas presented by the author explains the civilization's demise.
First of all, the author claims that the infestation of large rats may have led to the civilization's ruin. He says the rats consumed large amounts of seeds and palm trees, eventually causing severe deforestation on the island. He notes that this deforestation made the inhabitants on the island difficult to grow their food. The lecturer, however, rebuts this claim by mentioning that since the inhabitants were good at fishing, they could obtain enough food from the sea.
Secondly, the author suggests that the internal warfare among the inhabitants may have caused the decline. In the article, it is said that a lot of small carved blades, which may have been used as weapons for wars, were found all around the island. The lecturer, on the other hand, argues that the blades cannot be evidence for warfare. He points out that the blades are neither pointed nor big enough to kill humans.
Finally, the author posits that the exposure to diseases from the outside world may have caused civilization's demise. He notes that contacts with people from outside the island became frequent in the 19th century, and it is likely that the outsiders transmitted diseases to inhabitants of the island. In contrast, the lecturer's position is that the decline in population of the island started long before the 19th century disproves this idea.
FEYİZ EL İSA says
Firstly, he says that it is correct that rats existed on the island at that time but they are not the reason for the civilization to collapse.
A research said that 60% of the food was covered by the sea products which implies that people there had enough food.
Secondly, in the passage, it mentioned that Mata blades had an effect on declining the civilization as they suggested that these blades were used as weapons. Professor said that this is incorrect. The blades were not sharp enough and they used them in constructing their homes and for cutting the rocks.
Lastly, the professor said that it was true that people there had suffered from foriegn diseases, but this was far after the contact between local people and foreigners started. The population had not been affected directly after the contact started.
Arturo Rodriguez says
In the reading passage three explanations for the collapse of the Easter Island’s civilization were enlisted. They were connected to rats, internal warfare and diseases. Below I will outline the cons of the above-mentioned explanations.
First and foremost, even if rats have caused deforestation and soil loss, it could not be a significant problem for the locals as their diet consisted mostly of fish. It is also vital to mention that the residents of the island invented special techniques which allowed them to preserve fertile soil.
Furthermore, the considerable amount of blades found in the process of excavations does not explain anything. They are quite small and often even blunt. Thus, the blades were most likely used as tools, not weapons.
Last but not least, after the first contact with outsiders centuries before its extinction the population of the island had grown from somewhat 6000 to approximately 20000 residents. Therefore, external diseases could have not caused full collapse of the civilization.
Yiga Benedict says
i believe i am late but help me to grade this.
The topic today is about the civilization collapse on the Easter island found in the pacific ocean. There are many ideas as to why they might have collapsed. The passage brings to light a few of them as the speaker counters authors ideas with his own.
The author believes that the collapse was due to the rats which were in the ships that they sailed on to come to the island. He continues to say that they bred rapidly and started to feed on the seeds of palm tress and later leading to deforestation and soil erosion. The speaker, on the other hand, acknowledges that the deforestation did not lead to their starvation as the author claims because they had other sources of food like fish. The people on easter island would get fish as they were fishermen and they also had a place called rock gardens where they would plant crops despite soil erosion.
In the passage we find that they might have collapsed because of internal warfare . This conclusion was drawn due to the discovery of the mata’a; a sharp blade. The speaker on the other hand states that the mata’a was actually a blunt knife and suggested that it could have been used to curve statues from rocks and also as a building tool for their houses.
From the passage, the author claims that the collapse was due to diseases brought by the outsiders that came to their island from the 19th century. The speaker rebuts this by stating that the contact with the outsiders actually began early when the people were about 3000. He brings to light that even later on in the 17th century people were close to 20000 implying that there is no way the diseases would have actually been a cause to their collapse.
The author and the speaker have different views on the matter and I doubt that they will be able to reach common grounds.
Niabexy Nouel Diaz says
The reading and the lecture are both about the reasons of the collapse of the civilization of the Easter island. The reading states 3 possible reasons, and the lecture cast doubt about that three reasons
First, the reading claims that one possible situation that could have happens is an infestation of rats, because their fed on the seeds of the trees which grew up and that cause a deforestation, also the deforestation cause a loss of soil and then food. However, the lecturer say that it is not possible an infestation of rats that cause that level of issues, because the grounders was fishers, also after the infestation they had have enough food to survive.
Secondly, the reading says that other cause could be an internal warfare, because an archaeological excavation founded countless small curves that the probably use as weapons and as a result it ends with a population collapse. Nevertheless, the lecturer claims that an internal warfare probably never happens, because the investigations tells about the grounders was only constructing homes; they found tools and rocks that the population of the island probably used for it.
Finally, the reading states that could be the exposure of the new visitor from Europe and South America that cause a decrease of people in the island because the grounders do not have a good biological resistance to the people of outside. However, the lecturer says that it exists proves that claims about there is not possibility that the people in there was exterminated by the visitors because when the island was investigated, they found that years after the visitors had come to the island, the grounders had been at least 15 thousand more that the first time that visitors came in there.
Gaurang Parmar says
how can i check answer for this integrated essay thanks
Stella Falgenhauer says
Thank you very much for your website & YouTube channel – you're doing a great work and definitely contribute a huge part to my TOEFL preparation! 🙂 Here's my essay, thank you for offering the opportunity of checking!
The reading and the lecture are about the demise of the civilization of the Eastern Island. The author of the reading represents three theories giving different explanations for what could have caused the demise. The lecturer, instead, disputes the claims made in the article. His position is that there is no explanation for the demise. To prove this claim he is elaborating on the solutions given in the reading.
According to the later the infestation of rats builds one important argument in the discussion. Due to rats, which were brought to the island by boat, a massive deforestation of the island’s palm trees happened because the rats were eating the palm tree seeds. This specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that although the evidence of the existence of rats cannot be denied as well as them having eaten palm tree seeds, there was still enough food left. A compelling reason for this argument is the main way of gaining food: Fishing. Up to 60% of the local food was produced by fishing. Furthermore the professor points out that the people of the island built rock gardens enriched with good soil to plant and foster plants like potatoes.
Secondly the author of the reading suggests that the existence of blades – the so called mata’a – , which were found in huge numbers on the island, represent another way of explaining the population’s decline. In the article, it is said that internal warfare for much of the fourteenth century among the population has led to an inevitable decline. The lecturer, however, asserts that the mata’a do not indicate anything like a combat because of new archaeological evidence regarding the more likely actual use of these blades as workman tools. He goes on to say that they were not used as weapons as they do not show any sign of sharpness. Instead he explains the usage of those blades as tools for cutting rocks or other hard surfaces to produce material for house building as well as for statues (which have been detected on the island as well).
Finally, the author of the reading posits that the exposure to diseases in the 19th century can be seen as another reason for the population’s decline. The article contends that the native people of the island were not resistant to diseases brought by european or south american visitors. In contrast, the lecturer’s instance points out the impossibility of this argument. As much as the contact with certain diseases was detrimental to the native people of Eastern Island leading to an approximately death number of 3000 people, this still does not count as a decent explanation. He notes that the island’s population in the 17th century was around 20.000 people and therefore draws the conclusion that the decline must have started earlier and subsequently been caused by something else.
The three examples given by the professor demonstrate that there is no precise explanation of the population’s demise yet.
Arda Özç says
In this set of materials, the topic is about a civilzation which lived on Easter Island. The reading passage dwells on the fact that there are three causes why civilzation is collapsed. Firstly, rats fed on seeds in the island and it cause to deforestation. Hence, It opened a way to difficult life condition in island. Secondly, using small curved blades which name is Mat’aa caused to many deaths in internal war. Thirdly, outlanders brought some disease to island and it led to many deaths in Island.
As for the listening passage, the instructor provides the information that causes of collapse are different than in the reading passage. It is obivous that the listening passage is related to the reading passage in that it gives three reasons about causes of collapse. First of all, altough rats ate crops in island, inhabitants had great deal of food in island. Also, sixty percentage of their food came from the sea. Morever, inhabitants had large skills of warfare but small curved blades was used to cutting rock and construction of home. Finally, recent excavation shows that population of island was nearly 20.000. That is to say, it shows death from disease began long before contact of outsiders.
Amin Karbas says
Hey. Thanks for the content!
I hope you still check the essays posted here 🙂
We know that the civilization living on Easter Island collapsed sometime before the 19th century, but none of the reasons currently argued seem good enough.
The first argument is large rat infestation. While there is evidence that there in fact were rats on the island, and that they fed on palm tree seeds, damaging the people’s food supply, evidence suggests that there was enough food for the residents non the less. Based on what’s been found, many habitants of Easter Island were fishers, and 60% of their food supply came from the sea. There’s also evidence that they built rock gardens with fruitful soil, and farmed potatoes.
All of these point to the fact that rat infestation and starvation didn’t kill them.
The second argument is that they killed each other off during internal warfare. This also is not true as the evidence brought up through excavations suggest that the Mata’a blades they made were not sharp or pointed, and therefore were used in building houses, cutting rocks, and building statues found later on the island.
The third and last explanation argued for the society’s collapse is death due to exposure to diseases brought upon them by the outsiders — mainly from Europe and South America. While the exposure definitely happened and killed many, there is evidence that there were about three thousand people living on the island around the time the visitors first arrived. On the contrary, there’s also evidence that there were about 20 thousand people living there on during the 17th century. This suggests that their demise began before the arrival of visitors, and therefore wasn’t caused by it.
renu karule says
The reading and lecture are both about the civilization declination on Easter Island and probable causes of this demise. The author of the reading feels that there are three possible reasons behind this demise – deforestation of land due to rats, exposure to foreign diseases through visitors, and internal warfare. The lecture challenges the claims made by the author. He/She is of the opnion that these are not the valid reasons for the demise of civilization at easter island.
To begin with, the author argues that the foreginers came to Easter island via boats also carried large rats with them. These rats mainly fed on the seeds of palm trees and this led to deforestation of land. As a result, soil loss and errosion happened which made it hard for people to grow food. The lecturer, however, rebuts this by mentioning that,even if deforestation occurred the people on the island have had enough food to survive. He/She elaborates that people were not only relied on trees for food. Their diet came from sea food. There were prodigious fishers on the island. Also, people on island used to grow rock garden and cultivate crop like potato in weak soil.
Secondly, the author suggests that, the second possible cause of civilization decline may have been caused due to internal warfare. In the reading it is said that, exacavation have found out many curved blades – mata'a everywhere on island. These weapons suggest that there might be a large population decline during warfare. This sepcific argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that, after careful analysis, it is observed that, blades were not actually weapons, and only few of them were pointed. The people on island probably used them for other purposes like cutting rocks, construction of houses, and construction of statues. They havent used them for combat.
Finally, the author posits that exposure to diseases brought by visitors from Europe and South america. Moreover, it is stated in the article that, frequent contact with these vsitors caused the decline in population. In contrast, the lecturer's position is that this is not the logical cause of decline. He explains by pointing out that when contact with Europenas and South Americans began, there were 3000 residents living on island. Before that, in 17th century, the number of habitants were 20000. So,this decline must have started long before the people came in contact with the froeigners.
natalia longobardi says
The reading passage and the lecture are both discussing about the alleged cases of the society’s collapse.
The lecturer casts doubt about the point made in the reading passage and reaches a different conclusion to each case.
Firstly, the author agrees with the fact that rats have infested the island due to the evidence of fed palm trees , but they were not the main cause to the civilization’s ruin. In fact, they had enough soil to grow corps such as potatoes. In addition, the lecturer states that the inhabitants were skilled fishers due to their diet that came from the sea.
Secondly, the orator conflicts on the uncovering mata’s used as a weapons due to the internal warfare. The author emphasizes that following up to careful analysis, It is sharp that those mata’s were employed as tools to cut and shape their rocks or to build their homes.
In conclusion, the reading states that the one the leading cause to the island decline is the effect of the diseases brought from visitors of South America and Europe. The speaker points out that the diseases were already affecting the population since the 17th century with 20 000 inhabitants, hence long before the 19th century where was estimated a population of 30 000 dwellers as the reading passage claims.
Vasudev Sharma says
Would be glad if you could review my essay.
The reading passage and the lecture discuss the demise of the Eastern island's population. The former claims that there are some reasons for this. The latter, on the other hand, challenges each of these points and provides three reasons for support.
First of all, the reading suggests that a large number of rats caused the ruin of civilization. However, the lecture states that while it is true that rats existed at that period, there was enough food for the population. Since 60% of the population were fishers, it is unlikely that the inhabitants suffered because of lack of food. In addition, there were special rock gardens, where potatoes were grown, which provides evidence that there was sufficient food to feed the people.
Secondly, the author of the reading passage claims that the decline in the population was due to internal conflict, which is evidenced by the fact that there were weapons. On the other hand, the lecture contends that the weapons on Easter Island were not sharp enough to result in a decline of its population. Mostly, the tools were used for cutting rocks and constructing homes and large statues.
Finally, the lecture introduces the idea that visitors brought in diseases with them, and exposure to them led to the demise of civilization. Nevertheless, the lecturer argues that the population earlier was estimated to be 20 thousand people, which is long before contact with the outsiders. Although it is true many indeed suffered from diseases, the fact that it happened long ago cannot be ignored.
chris tan says
Hi Sir, first of all, thanks for the video, it is very helpful to mimic the test situation.
I have 2 questions
1) should I point out all layers of cause and effect from the authors?
For example, rats > no palm tree > deforestation > erosion,soil loss > no land to grow food > no food
Or I could just state that the collapse was caused by rats and deforestation?
2) should I mention from what sources the lecturer makes the claims?
For example, the lecturer claims that population was 20000 on the 17th century based on a research. Should I mention that sources as well?
Wilfred Danthi says
Hello Sir, I would like for you to evaluate my essay…
The reading and the lecturer are about the Civilization on Easter Island. The author of the reading feels that before 19th century there was total downfall in the society. The lecturer challengers the statements made by the author. He is of the opinion that the following explanations are incorrect.
To begin with, the author argues that there was an infestation of a large number of rats which lead to deforestation. The article mentions that the rats devoured seeds and palm trees to survive which lead to deforestation and as a result, the food could not be grown due to erosion and soil loss. This specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that although, rats were large in number there was enough food as they consumed 60% of their food from the sea. Additionally, he says that rock gardens with rich soil were used to grow food like potatoes.
Secondly, the writer suggests that archaeologist discovered small curved blades called “Mata” which were found in a large number in Easter Island indicated that it might have been used for warfare. In the article, it is said that there was a decrease in population due to this speculating warfare. The lecturer, however, rebuts this by mentioning that the blades that were present were blunt and did not portray as a warlike weapon. He elaborates on this by bringing up the point that they seemed to be construction tools used to cut rock and build statues and monuments.
Finally, the author posits that there were larger number of people exposed to diseases in Europe and South America. Moreover, in the article it is stated that due to contact with people over borders the disease was widely spread which lead to many deaths inside the states. In contrast, the lecturer’s position is that regardless of effect the population itself was very less about 3000. He notes that this continues and long term effect caused many people to suffer.
Sir please let me know if i have area of improvements &thank you very much for this practice question.
Данил Фомин says
Julio Alberto Obregón Peña says
Liked and suscribed! Thank you for uploading so much helpful content. Could you please review my essay?
The reading and the lecture are both about the collapse of the civilization of Easter Island. The author of the reading explains three possible explanations of how the people of the Easter Island seemly vanished from existence. The lecturer challenges each of his arguments. In the following paragraphs, I will present each.
Firstly, the author argues that a very plausible explanation might be the deforestation caused by rats. Big rats brought to the island by its original inhabitants spread all across the island. These rats fed on the seeds of palm trees. Eventually, caused lack of trees for the local tribe to collect from. However, the lecturer claims that even with all the palm trees removed from the island, local people could have survived. Their diet was mainly based on seafood. It is proven that they had other sources of food. For instance, there have been found rocks used to work soil. In addition, they also used to grow crops such as potatos.
Secondly, the author posits that small curved blades have been found in the island suggesting that there was an internal warfare during the XIV century, which caused population to decline drastically. The lecturer rebuts this. He claims that these blades are known as mata’a and they were not weapons of war at all. In contrary, they were most likely used as tools for carving in order to make houses and the famous statues named Moai.
Finally, the author brings up the idea that population might have suffered from severe diseases brought to the island by visitors in the XIX century. It is logical to think their bodies had no biological resistance to the new diseases they were facing. Even though it is true, the lecturer states that this was not the actual reason for population to go extinct. A couple of centuries before population had declined from around twenty thousand people down to only three thousand.
Ellen Lim says
The passage and the lecture both discuss the unsolved mystery of why the culture on Easter Island collapsed. The author puts forward three plausible reasons, which, however, the professor feels insufficient in their explanatory power.
The passage starts with a theory that rats, which ate the seeds and grass on the island, leading to a severe deforestation, caused the inhabitants to ultimately disappear. However, the professor rebuts this view by suggesting that although rats did infest the islands and ate up the grass, the islanders were left with enough food for survival. Primarily, they were excellent fishers whose food intake depended on seafood by an astonishing sixty percent. Besides, evidence also shows that they built rock gardens that contain fertile soils, which stood against the erosion and allowed them to plant potatoes.
The second reason the author gives is that there might have been warfare among the inhabitants on the island. This claim is based on the archaeological finding of curved blades. The professor sees it otherwise. To him, these blades are not sharp enough, nor are they adequately pointy, to be used as weapons. They were more likely to serve as tools that built the homes of the islanders or their gigantic statues.
Lastly, the author accuses the outsiders of bringing deadly diseases that the local inhabitants had no immunity to, which caused them to die in masses. However, the professor points out a critical deficiency of this theory that by the time the outsiders arrived, the population on the island had already dramatically decreased from twenty thousand to barely a thousand. Therefore, the mysterious collapse of the culture must have had took place before the outsiders arrived, which falsifies the claim made by the author.
Albano Bizgjoni says
Both the reading and the lecture talks about the collapse of the population of Easter island somewhere in the 19th century. While the reading passage explains this decline giving three possible reasons the professor on the lecture totally disagrees with those arguments.
Firstly, he argues that the rat theory is not supported by facts. This is because people on the island were mostly fisherman, and 60% of their diet contained seafood. Beside that, people have learned to grow crops, potatoes among all, so they were not fully dependent on tree seeds.
Secondly, he also challenges the war theory among peoples on the island. The archeological findings of bladed mathas suggests that they were not weapons at all, as they were not pointed or sharpened. He believes that these blades were use as tools to build houses and statues found on the island..
Regarding the third, and last, disease theory, the professor suggests that it cannot be the reason for the population decline on easter island. He supports this argument by stating that contact with european and South Americans have started since the 15th century , and evidence shows that the population on the island in the 17th century was thriving, with over 25 thousand people. Therefore, this last theory could not stand as a possible cause of population collapse on eastern island.
PS. I had around 10 grammar mistakes, which were automatically corrected. so If you will have the time to correct my essay take that in count.
Thank you very much in advance, your work is very much appreciated.
Kind regards form Tirana, Albania
Corina Ilie says
Hi Michael! Thank you so much for spending time looking on our essays. I hope you can find some also for mine and please give me feedback. This is mine:
The lecture and the reading passage are both about the end of the civilization on Easter Island and its causes. The lecturer casts doubt on the main points made in the reading by providing three reasons.
First of all, according to the reading, there was a food loss due to the deforestation and soil erosion, which were also caused by the infestation of rats. However, the lecturer disputes this point. He says that the rats ate the palm trees' seeds, which afterwards caused deforestation, but the inhabitants had enough food. They were good fishers, so a big part of their diet was fish and they also grew special gardens, which could resist erosion. These gardens also enabled them to have some vegetables, for example potatoes.
Secondly, the excerpt states that the civilization's demise could be also due to internal warfare among population. There were found tiny blades, which, according to the reading, were used as weapons. Nevertheless, the lecturer refutes this argument. He argues that mata'a were used for cutting rock and for building homes or statues, so the warfare is not a cause for their ending.
Finally, the text claims that in the 19th century, the contact with outsiders, who carried diseases, was disastrous for the Easter Island population. On the other hand, the lecturer believe that the visitors on the Island were not the cause. He states that when the exposure to outsiders started, there were 13 thousands people on the island, but in the 17th century there were 20 thousands. So the cause of their demise appeared long ago before the Europeans and South Americans.
Daniel Bejarano says
Hello sir. Thank you in advance for your feedback.
The article introduces the topic of the collapse of the Eastern Island. More specifically, the writer discusses the main reasons why the population of the island may have collapsed. The lecturer in the listening passage disagrees. He believes that these reasons might not be the causes of the collapse.
In the reading, the author begins by stating that rats may have eaten seed of palm trees and caused deforestation in the island. The lecturer, however, disagrees. He states that is true that rats might have caused this problem, but it is not the reason why they collapse. He goes on to say that the population still have something to eat and people there were considered prodigious fishers. He also said they built rock gardens where they planted crops of potatoes.
The author claims that some scientist have found rest of blades and this could be a sign of warfare in the zone. Again, the lecturer believes there are flaws in the writer's argument. The speaker holds that a careful analysis show there were not weapons at all. They may have been tools for cutting rocks, cut large statutes and not for combat.
Another reason why the author feels that the population collapsed is that visitors from Europe and South America carried diseases and killed around one thousand people because they may have not had the resistance for these types of illness. The professor in the listening passage is doubtful that this is accurate. He suggest that in the seventeenth century the population was over twenty thousand and the diseases may have killed only three thousand. Furthermore, this happened long before the collapsed.
To sum up, both the writer and the professor hold conflicting views about the collapsed of the Eastern Island. It is clear they will have trouble finding common ground on this issue.
Takser Maryna says
Hello Michael. Thank you very much for everything you do. I will be really happy to learn your opinion about my little piece if writing art 🙂
The text and the lecture are discussing the possible reasons for the decrease in the population of Easter Island before nineteenth century. The lecturer opposes all the ideas given by the author of the text and finds them unconvincing.
First of all, the lecturer disagrees with the writer of the text that infestation of large rats could be the reason for the civilization's demise. The speaker agrees that large rats could be brought to the island by boats, and they could rapidly reproduce eating seeds of palm trees. However, the deforestation caused by rats is unlikely the cause for the civilization to collapse. The lecturer supports his idea with the evidence that island's inhabitants were fishers whose food supply depended by sixty percent on fishing. Moreover, they grew different types of crops such as potatoes; therefore, people on the island did not depend on palm trees as the main food source, the speaker concludes.
Moreover, the lecturer argues the second reason presented in the reading passage. The speaker asserts that the bladed mata'as founded on the island are not the evidence for internal warfare among the population. The lecturer highlights that blades of this weapon were neither sharp nor pointy which makes them not weapons at all. Most likely they were used as tools in different tasks such as curving statures, according to the lecturer.
Furthermore, the lecturer doubts the authors idea that the exposure to foreign diseases could be a reason for the island's population decline. He stresses that by the time the foreign people arrived to the island the size of the population was already decreased from twenty thousand to three thousand people. Hence, newcomers are not responsible for the civilization collapse, the lecturer says.
Consequently, the lecturer disagrees with the author of the text and argues all three reasons mentioned in the reading passage.
Nyarai Tepa says
Hie, thank you so much for these interactive tutorials, i am greatly benefitting from them. Here is my essay for your review.
Both articles are on the extinction of the East island population. The reading brings forward a number of reasons basing his argument on why the Easter Island suffered extinction. However, the professor’s presentation in the lecture casts doubts on these arguments.
First the reading passage states that Easter Islands’ agronomy way of life was seriously disrupted by an invasion of large rats. These rats feed on palm tree seed, which consequently led to the destruction of these trees. Thus, deforestation which eventually led to soil erosion made it very difficult to farm productively. This is however, contrasted by the professor in his presentation where he points out that 60% of their diet was from fishing. In addition to that, the people had rock gardens, safely made for growing garden crops that also sustained them. This effectively suggest that there was adequate food hence it could not be a reason for their demise.
Secondly, the article pushes forth the idea that there where internal warfare that took place as evidenced by the sharp curved tools discovered by archeologist in Easter Island. These wars are also responsible for the decrease in and fall of the people. In opposition the professor points out that these tools were not for war but rather, they were used for construction and cutting rocks as they were not sharp or pointed according to a closer analysis done on them. Therefore, this assertion dismisses the war evidence and consequently internal wars as being contributory to the demise of the civilization.
Lastly, it is suggested that frequent interactions with outsiders might also have caused the people’s fall in the reading. However, this is challenged by the professor ‘s assertion that even before these contacts, it is noted that the population had decreased marginally from 17 000 to 3000 which alludes to the fact the demise had started long before they got into contact with other people. We can therefore argue that outside interaction was in no way a cause for the end of Easter Island.
G. Ophtanie says
Hi Michael, Before i post my essay i want you to know i really appreciate this, and thank you very much for your time. I am thinking of taking the TOEFL online in two weeks.
here we go, i hope having feedback from you.
the Easter island has been for a long time the biggest challenge of the scientist to find out what has happened, and how the inhabitants of this island had been disappeared. some people had tried to give a possible explanation but those theories had also been contested. In this essay I will present three possible theories and the reasons why they were refuted.
the first theory points out the rats' invasion as the principal cause of this situation because they principally feed seed and cause deforestation which would cause erosion and lack of food on the population indeed their death. but the inhabitants of the island had two habilities they were good fisher and they used to make practices that protect the soil from erosion. Furthermore, the presence of small blades would suggest a period of warfare that would cause a decline in the population. excavations identify those blades by their lack of point as possible tools the used to use for cut rock or other things. The last theory proposes the declination as an effect of diseases brought by visitors from other places. That theory cannot be stood neither because of evidence in declination of the population while before those interactions.
In conclusion, the declination of the easter island population will remain a great challenge for the humanity. And researchers will keep looking for the truth about its declination.
Agustina Blanco says
The reading and the lecture are both
about the possible causes that led the Easter Island society to collapse in the
19th century. In this piece of writing I will explain how the points
made in the reading are challenged by the lecturer.
To begin with, the author suggests that
one reason could have been the lack of food. He explains that rats that were
brought into the island with the first inhabitants could have fed on seed of
palm trees. Consequently, deforestation was provoked. As a result, there was
soil loss and difficulties to grow food. In contrast, the lecturer says that
although there were rats causing deforestation, food could not have been the
reason of their collapse. He goes on to state that people were effective fishers
and soils were rich enough to grow crops like potatoes.
Secondly, in the article it is said that
a reason could have been an internal warfare. There were found blades that
could have been used as weapons. The lecturer, however, rebuts this by
mentioning that those blades were not too sharp. He suggests that probably they
were use as tools for construction of houses and statues.
Finally, the writer states that the
exposure to diseases from foreign people could cause the death of many
inhabitants because they did not have biological resistance. The lecturer argues
that the decline in population began in the 17th century, long
before the collapse of this society. In conclusion, these foreign diseases
could not have been the cause of the end of Easter Island society.
Daniele Asaro says
Hello Michael, this is my essay I hope you can review it 🙂
There are three main points which are discussed in the professor’s lecture and in the statement. The topic is highlighted about the collapse of the civilization in Easter Island, This main reasons are rats infestation, internal warfare and deathly disease.
Firstly, the professor have pointed out if had happened the infestation of rats the population would have had different source of food. He brought an example such as they were skilled fisherman, which their diet was implemented about 60% of that. Another fact was the Easter Island’s soil has rich of nutrients and they could planted crops such as potato.
Secondly, according to the statement which view explain there have been found weapons in this island and this could be related to an internal warfare, professor dissembled this hypothesis said that was not weapon but tools. Especially this curved blades called Mata’a had been used for build construction or work the soil.
Finally, from the statement transpire one of the possible caused to decline of Easter civilization could be a disease. Although the professor reaffirmed this caused, he said there was trace of this disease inside the island, he pointed out there was not enough strong to swept out the population. He brought solid number such as in the past, there were 3000 people inside and afterwards in 17th century the number had reached of 20000. Especially in that century the population had been contacted with outsiders such as Europeans and South American, the number did not diminish. If Easter Island’s population had caught the disease they would not have thrived thereafter.
dima na says
Could you please tell me if it is necessary to write a conclusion in the integrated question because I have seen many templates, some of them suggest writing a conclusion and others suggest not to write, so I get confused. I am afraid if I do not write one my score might be affected.
Shailesh Agrawal says
The article discusses some of the reasons due to which the Eastern Island Civilization collapsed. The professor refutes author's explanation and address, in detail, the problem with each of the reasons.
Firstly, the author posits the civilization collapses because of infestation of island by a large number of rats, which fed on palm seeds leading to deforestation and consequently soil erosion; as a result of a massive loss in production of food occurred. The lecturer, however, rebuts the theory and explains the islanders mainly ate fish as staple diet, and they have special areas in island to grow food such as potato despite a high level of deforestation.
Secondly, the writer points out the discovery of a slew of small curved blades in archaeological studies, which suggest large scale warfare leading to collapse of civilization. The lecturer, nevertheless, refuses this claim and put forth the idea that tools found in excavation must be used in cutting of rocks and hard surfaces to construct house and statues.
Lastly, the claim that the island population died due to disease brought by Europeans and North Americans is rebutted by the lecturer by arguing that a large number of people had already died when outsiders came in contact with natives. He explains that the population of islanders was 20,000 in the seventeenth century, which reduces to 3000 when outsiders came to island.
Muhwezi Arnold says
20 minutes on the spot.
The lecturer begins by clarifying that no explanation is clear as to what exactly could have led to the civilization’s demise and later criticizes the three existing ideas form the passage as folows;
The lecturer casts a doubt on the idea of the rat infestation which says that the boats that brought the islands original inhabitants had rats which were able to rapidly reproduce and feed on the seeds of palm trees growing on the island and eventually causing major deforestation that may have cause soil erosion and soil loss making it growing food difficult. The lecturer claims that the inhabitants were also fishers and were able to feed on fish from the sea. The lecturer also suggests evidence of special rock gardens that the inhabitants used to grow food.
The lecture also refutes the second idea that the sheer number of small curved blades called ‘mata’ which turned up from archeological excavations were probably used as weapons by the civilization during an internal war that would claim their existence. The lecturer suggests that careful analysis of the blades on these so called weapons indicate that they were rather used as tools for cutting rock and also used for construction of homes and a number of statues that were discovered.
Lastly, the lecturer agrees with the fact made in the third idea that frequent contact with outsiders could have indeed exposed the civilization to some diseases the outsiders carried and put the civilization’s biological resistance to disease at stake but also sights that the population managed to grow from 3000 people to 20000 in the 17th century , so long after contact with outsiders.
Vizi Előd says
Both the article and the professor discuss the civilization on Easter Island, one of the most remote islands in the Pacific Ocean. The author describes three theories that might support the collapse of this thriving population. However, the professor refutes all of the author’s theories by explaining that none of them are good enough to support the severe population decline of Easter Island.
First, the author claims that when inhabitants arrived they have brought some rats on their boats to the island. These rats caused deforestation by eating the seeds of palm trees, then deforestation caused erosion and soil loss, which might have led to food shortages causing the collapse of the population. The professor, on the other hand, says that the population of the island might have had enough food even if rats caused deforestation and erosion of the soil because they have been fishers and more than half of the diet of the civilization came from the sea. They had also cultivated potatoes and other crops in rock gardens which couldn’t be affected by the erosion and the soil loss that rats caused.
Second, another theory posits that warfare among the population might have caused a huge decline. Thousands of curved blades were found during excavations. These curved blades might have been used as weapons, so a great number of them suggest that large warfare might have occurred. However, the professor states that analysis of the mata’a, the curved blades found during the excavations, clearly shows that the blades were not sharp enough to be used as weapons. This analysis brings evidence that the mata’as were used as construction tools of homes and statues.
Third, the article describes diseases as the last possible theory that might have caused the collapse of the population on Easter Island. It is stated that the island was visited by European and South American expeditors, and so, those outsiders brought diseases that the population’s biological system couldn’t resist. The professor opposes this theory by explaining that, even though it is true that the contacts with the outsiders were detrimental and they have brought diseases for the Easter Island civilization, it wasn’t the main cause of the population collapse. Moreover, it is known that the population has already decreased severely long before any outsider visitors had arrived.
Maha Sh says
Maybe I am too late, but I would like to submit my essay there if anyone could read and discuss the mistakes:
Both the article and the lecture discuss the reasons for the collapse of the inhabitants in Easter Island. Whereas article emphasized that there are 3 possible reasons for demise the civilization, the lecture rejects all of them as follows;
First of all, the writer claimed that the large rats, which are carried to the island, ate the seeds of the palm trees, and contributed to deforestation. Thus, people there suffered from the lack of food and starvation expanded. In contract, the author disagrees with that because had many other resources to eat such as fishes and several kinds of crops like potato.
The second evidence that the article talked about, is related to Matta. This Matta is a kind of weapon founded on the island. In this case, the writer supposed that people used Matta for fighting purposes. Although the author agrees with finding Matta, He believes that people used it just for building works. He got his idea due to the shape of Matta which isn’t suitable for battles.
Furthermore, the article implied that the visitors from Europe and South America brought diseases to the Island which accelerated to the collapse. On the other side, the author rejects this point because the tourists started coming to the Island after it had been dismissed even if he agrees that visitors could bring diseases and contributed to decrease the number of the inhabitant there.
Quezia Jones says
The reading passage explains three main possible motives for
the Easter Island civilization collapse, as following: infestation of large rats causing deforestation and lack of food, warfare among themselves,
and exposure to diseases. The lecturer counters all of the passage ideas.
First, the lack of trees cause by the rats would not have stopped the
food suplie, mainly because the civilization sorce of food came from the sea, such as fish. And they could build rocks proveding a rich soil.
Second, the warfare was explained because they found blades who were
supposely weapons, but the lecturer said that those blades were actually tools used to construction. His point is that they weren't sharp enough
to be weapons.
Lastly, it is known that the Europe and other outside visitors expose
the population to diseases, but they were not enough to cause the civilization collapse. The professor states that initially were 3 thousand people living
on the island, by the 17 centurie there were 20 thousand people, so the they
actually grown, meaning that this couldn't have been a plausible point for the population collapse.
Guido Pennisi says
The reading and the speaking passages both talk about the demographic evolution of the native population of the Easter Island. While the author of the passage suggests three different hypothesis that could have caused the steep decline of those people, the lecturer points out several flaws in each of these arguments.
First, the writer says that large rats on the island caused deforestation which led to the starvation because plants could no longer be grown. In contrast, the professor suggests that men and women living in the region were skilled fishers and more than 60% of their diet was based on fish. In addition, they were also able to build rock garden with rich soil to cultivate potatoes. As a result, they could have always feed themselves.
Second, the article reports that a large-scale warfare killed most of the local population. On the contrary, the speaker underlines that the hugh amount of blades found in the area were not weapons. In fact, their shape and size show that they were more likely used to break rocks and build homes and statues.
Third, the written material highlights that the interaction with foreigners caused a lot of deaths due to diseases. On the contrary, the lecturer mentions that in the 19th century the population of that island was made by only 3000 people, while they were more than 20,000 in the 17th century. Therefore, the significant reduction of members of that society must have happened before any contact with outsiders.