Research Article | Open Access

E. Berriochoa, A. Cachafeiro, J. M. GarcΓa Amor, "About Nodal Systems for Lagrange Interpolation on the Circle", *Journal of Applied Mathematics*, vol. 2012, Article ID 421340, 11 pages, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/421340

# About Nodal Systems for Lagrange Interpolation on the Circle

**Academic Editor:**Nicola Guglielmi

#### Abstract

We study the convergence of the Laurent polynomials of Lagrange interpolation on the unit circle for continuous functions satisfying a condition about their modulus of continuity. The novelty of the result is that now the nodal systems are more general than those constituted by the *n* roots of complex unimodular numbers and the class of functions is different from the usually studied. Moreover, some consequences for the Lagrange interpolation on and the Lagrange trigonometric interpolation are obtained.

#### 1. Introduction

The aim of this paper is to study the Lagrange interpolation problem on the unit circle for nodal systems more general than those constituted by the roots of complex unimodular numbers. This last case has been studied in [1], where there is posed as an open problem its extension to more general nodal systems. Recently a similar problem has been solved in [2] for the Hermite interpolation problem. Now we follow the ideas in [2] to obtain some results for the Lagrange case. Moreover, in [1] there is obtained a result about convergence of the interpolants for continuous functions satisfying a condition related to their modulus of continuity. In the present paper our aim is to obtain a similar result for the new nodal systems and with a different condition on the modulus of continuity for the functions.

The Lagrange interpolation problem on the real line has been widely studied for a long time and many results about convergence are known (see [3β6]). If we only assume the continuity of the function, it is well known that the behavior is rather irregular. Faber has proved that for each nodal system there exists a continuous function such that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials is not uniformly convergent. Bernstein has also proved the existence of a continuous function such that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials is unbounded on a prefixed point. In the case of the nodal systems constituted by the zeros of the Tchebychef polynomials of the first kind, many results are known. Although these last nodal systems are good for interpolation, GrΓΌnwald in [7] and Marcinkiewicz in [8] have proved the existence of a continuous function such that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials, corresponding to the Tchebychef nodal system, is divergent. After this result a natural problem was to obtain an analogous result for an arbitrary nodal system. This result was obtained by ErdΓΆs and VΓ©rtesi in [9], where they prove that for each nodal system on there exists a continuous function such that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials diverges for almost every point in . Thus, to obtain better properties about the convergence of the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials, it is needed to impose some restriction on the function, such as a condition on its modulus of continuity. In the case of Jacobi abscissas, SzegΕ has obtained important results about convergence by imposing some conditions to the modulus of continuity of the function (see [10]). For example, in the case of the Tchebychef abscissas of first kind, he obtained the uniform convergence to the function on , under the assumption that its modulus of continuity is . SzegΕ has also obtained uniform convergence of the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials for more general nodal systems, under the assumptions that the nodes are the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials with respect to a weight function such that and the modulus of continuity of the functions is with .

In the present paper we improve some results about convergence of the Lagrange interpolation polynomials in , by using the SzegΕ transformation and the results concerning the unit circle. The organization of the paper is the following. In Section 2 we obtain our main result concerning the uniform convergence of the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation for nodal systems described in terms of some properties and for continuous functions with modulus of continuity when and . Section 3 is devoted to obtain some consequences of the preceding results concerning the Lagrange interpolation on . Finally, in the last section, we obtain some improvements concerning the Lagrange trigonometric interpolation.

#### 2. Lagrange Interpolation in the Space of Laurent Polynomials

Let be a set of complex numbers such that for all and for . Let be a set of arbitrary complex numbers, and let and be two nondecreasing sequences of nonnegative integers such that with .

We recall that the Lagrange interpolation problem in the space of Laurent polynomials consists in determining the unique Laurent polynomial such that

If we denote by the nodal polynomial, then can be written as follows: where are the fundamental polynomials of Lagrange interpolation given by and they are characterized by satisfying , for all .

We are also going to consider the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for a function defined on , that we are going to denote by and which is characterized by fulfilling the conditions for .

When the nodal system is constituted by the -roots of a complex number with modulus 1, and the function is continuous on , and its modulus of continuity satisfies , , the following result about convergence is known (see [1]).

Theorem 2.1. *Let be a continuous function on , let and be two nondecreasing sequences of nonnegative integers such that and with , and assume that the modulus of continuity of is for some , if .**Let be the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation for the function with nodal system being the -roots of complex numbers with .**Then uniformly on .*

*Proof. *See [1].

The main tools to prove the preceding result are the explicit expression of the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation and some properties concerning the nodal system. In [2] the Hermite interpolation problem was studied for general nodal systems satisfying certain properties. Following similar ideas we prove, in the next theorem, a result about the convergence of the Lagrange interpolants for a different class of functions and more general nodal systems.

Theorem 2.2. *Let be a continuous function on , with modulus of continuity , if . Let and be two nondecreasing sequences of nonnegative integers such that and with .**Let be a set of complex numbers such that for all and for and let be the nodal polynomial. Assume that there exist positive constants and such that for every and large enough the following relations hold:*

(i)*,
*(ii)*. ** If is the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation related to the nodal system and the function , then uniformly on .*

*Proof. *First we prove that there exists a positive constant such that for every and large enough. Indeed, taking into account (2.3) and applying the hypothesis we get
Let us consider the Laurent polynomial of best uniform approximation to , . If , then it holds that
where (see [1]). Since , then by hypothesis .

If we write
then we have
and it is easy to prove that the last expression tends to zero because and

*Remark 2.3. *(i) Since for implies , then the preceding result is also valid for functions with modulus of continuity , with , if . Hence, in the sequel and for simplicity, we establish all the results with the condition .

(ii) Since it is clear that the nodal systems in Theorem 2.1 satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 2.2, we have that the result given in Theorem 2.1 is also valid for functions with modulus of continuity , if .

Next we recall a sufficient condition given in [2] in order that the nodal system satisfies the conditions imposed in the previous theorem. We use the so-called para-orthogonal polynomials (see [11β13]) and the class of measures satisfying the SzegΕ condition, (see [10, 13β15]). Notice that the nodal systems in Theorem 2.1 are constituted by the roots of complex unimodular numbers, and indeed they are the roots of the para-orthogonal polynomials with respect to the Lebesgue measure on .

Theorem 2.4. *Let be a measure on in the SzegΕ class with SzegΕ function having analytic extension up to . Let be the monic orthogonal polynomial sequence with respect to , , and , with being the para-orthogonal polynomials. Then there exist positive constants , and such that for every and large enough the following relations hold: *(i)*,
*(ii)*,
*(iii)*, where one assumes that are the zeros of .*

*Proof. *See [2].

Taking into account the preceding results, we are in conditions to prove the following corollary.

Corollary 2.5. *Let be a continuous function on , with modulus of continuity , if . Let and be two nondecreasing sequences of nonnegative integers such that and with .**Let be a measure on in the SzegΕ class with SzegΕ function having analytic extension up to . Let be the and let , with , be the para-orthogonal polynomials.**If is the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation related to the function and with nodal system the zeros of the para-orthogonal polynomials , then uniformly on .*

*Proof. *Taking into account that the zeros of belong to (see [11]), the result is immediate from Theorems 2.2 and 2.4.

*Remark 2.6. *Notice that the preceding result is valid for the Bernstein-SzegΕ measures (see [13]).

#### 3. Lagrange Interpolation on

In this section we present some consequences of Theorem 2.2 concerning the Lagrange interpolation problems on . Let us recall that the Lagrange interpolation polynomial related to a nodal system and satisfying the conditions is given by , where .

Theorem 3.1. *Let be a nodal system in such that satisfies the following inequalities
**
with for and for some positive constants and , large enough and every .**Let be a continuous function on such that , if .**If is the Lagrange interpolation polynomial such that for , then converges to uniformly on .*

*Proof. *It is easy to see that the polynomial has the following expression , with .

Let us define a continuous function on by , with and . It is clear that

If we take as nodal system on , we can consider the following Lagrange interpolation problem: find the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation satisfying the interpolation conditions
By applying Theorem 2.2 we have that uniformly on .

On the other hand, for and it holds
Hence uniformly on .

As a consequence we obtain, in the next corollary, a result that was proved by SzegΕ in [10] under weaker conditions. Although our result is not new, we give the proof because the way in which it is obtained is different from SzegΕβs proof.

Corollary 3.2. *Let be a continuous function on such that , if . Let be a finite positive Borel measure on satisfying the SzegΕ condition , and let be the . Assume that the function is positive on and it is analytic in an open set containing .**If is the Lagrange interpolation polynomial satisfying the interpolation conditions , where are the zeros of the orthogonal polynomial , then**
uniformly on .*

*Proof. *By using the SzegΕ transformation (see [10]), the measure becomes into the measure , which is in the SzegΕ class with SzegΕ function having analytic extension up to (see [14]). If we denote by the and by the , then both sequences are related by

The zeros of , , are simple and belong to and they are related to the zeros of , , by . By applying Theorem 2.4 we get that the system satisfies the hypothesis of Theorem 3.1. Then we have that converges to uniformly on .

Analogous results can be obtained for other nodal systems related to those given in Corollary 3.2. Let be a finite positive Borel measure on . Let us consider the measures and let us denote the with respect to these measures by . Let us consider the SzegΕ transformed measure of , with , . Taking into account the relation between the measures, we can relate the orthogonal sequences as follows (see [16]):

We denote by the zeros of , by the zeros of , and by the zeros of .

If we denote by the zeros of , by the zeros of , and by the zeros of , then the following relations hold: , and ,. By taking nodal systems related to the zeros of , , we obtain the next result.

Theorem 3.3. *Let be a continuous function on such that , if . Let be a finite positive Borel measure on , , satisfying the SzegΕ condition. Assume that the function is positive in and it is analytic in an open set containing . Let , be the measures given in (3.7). Let us consider the Lagrange interpolation polynomials for the function with the following nodal systems: *(i)*the zeros of joint with ,*(ii)*the zeros of joint with 1,*(iii)*the zeros of joint with β1.**Then the corresponding Lagrange interpolation polynomials uniformly converge to on .*

*Proof. *By the SzegΕ transformation the measure becomes into the measure , which is in the SzegΕ class with SzegΕ function having analytic extension up to . We denote by the . If we define a continuous function on by with and , then it is clear that .

(i) We consider the para-orthogonal polynomial , whose zeros are , and they are related to the zeros of by .

Let us consider the following Lagrange interpolation problem: find the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation satisfying
By applying Corollary 2.5 we have that uniformly on . If we take
for , then fulfills , and . Therefore, is the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for the function and the nodal system given in (i) and uniformly on .

(ii) We consider the para-orthogonal polynomials whose zeros, ,, are related to the zeros of by .

We pose the problem of finding the Laurent polynomial of Lagrange interpolation satisfying
Since uniformly on , if we define for and , then fulfills , and . Therefore, uniformly on .

(iii) It is obtained proceeding the same way as in the previous items.

*Remark 3.4. * (i) In particular, the preceding result is valid for the following nodal systems: the zeros of the Tchebychef polynomials of the second kind joint with , the zeros of the Tchebychef polynomials of the third kind joint with 1, and the zeros of the Tchebychef polynomials of the fourth kind joint with β1.

(ii) Moreover it is also valid for the polynomial modifications, by positive polynomials, of the Bernstein measures corresponding to the Tchebychef measures mentioned before.

#### 4. Trigonometric Interpolation

Next we obtain some consequences of Theorem 2.2, which are related to the Lagrange trigonometric interpolation. Now the nodal points are in and they are obtained as follows. Let be a positive finite Borel measure on satisfying the SzegΕ condition. Assume that the function for all and it is analytic in an open set containing . If is the and are the zeros of , we consider the following nodal system on , such that with and for ; that is, the points are symmetric with respect to .

Theorem 4.1. *Let be a real continuous function on , with modulus of continuityββ, if .**Let the nodal system be with with and for , where are the zeros of the orthogonal polynomial with respect to the measure . One also assumes that is a positive finite Borel measure on satisfying the SzegΕ condition and such that for all and it is analytic in an open set containing .**Then there is a Lagrange interpolation trigonometric polynomial of degree , , such that for and it satisfies that uniformly on .*

*Proof. *Proceeding like in Corollary 3.2 we obtain that the transformed measure of by the SzegΕ transformation, , satisfies the hypothesis of Theorem 2.4 and the para-orthogonal polynomials satisfy the bound condition of Theorem 2.4.

Let us define by for . Let be the Lagrange interpolation polynomial such that , where .

Since is continuous on and , we can apply Corollary 3.2 and therefore uniformly on .

If we take , then satisfies the interpolation conditions, , and .

In the next result we denote the integer part of by and we consider another type of nodal system on .

Theorem 4.2. *Let be a measure on in the SzegΕ class with SzegΕ function having analytic extension up to . Let be the zeros of the para-orthogonal polynomials , with , and let such that .**If is a continuous function on with , if , then there is a Lagrange interpolation trigonometric polynomial of degree , , such that for and it satisfies that uniformly on .*

*Proof. *Let be a continuous function defined by . Since , then . By applying Corollary 2.5 we obtain for , with and , there exists such that and uniformly on .

We distinguish the two following cases.

(i)If is even, we take and . Then .(ii)If is odd, we take and . Then .In any case the real part of is a trigonometric polynomial of degree , that satisfies the interpolation conditions and the convergence property.

#### Acknowledgment

The research was supported by Ministerio de Ciencia e InnovaciΓ³n under grant number MTM2011-22713.

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#### Copyright

Copyright Β© 2012 E. Berriochoa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.